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Full text of "Newport River estuary dye study : an analysis of water movement"

North Carotina Stne Library CFIP RFPORT NO 18 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 



http://www.archive.org/details/newportriverestuOOkaza 



NEWPORT RIVER ESTUARY DYE STUDY: AN ANALYSIS OF WATER MOVEMENT 

by 

Jacqueline S. Kazarian 
Duke University Marine Laboratory 
Beaufort, North Carolina 28516 



The preparation of this report was financed through a Coastal Energy Impact 
Program grant provided by the North Carolina Coastal Management Program, 
through funds provided by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as 
amended, which is administered by the Office of Coastal Zone Management, 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This CEIP grant was part 
of NOAA grant NA-80-AA-D-CZ149. 



CEIP REPORT 



Project No. CEIP 80-01 
Contract No. C-1193 
March 1983 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The author would like to thank the following people and organizations 
for assistance, advice and financial support during the experimental work 
and preparation of this paper: 

John D, Costlow, Director of Duke University Marine Laboratory, for 
his advice and confidence in the initiation, progression and completion of 
the project; 

Peter Paul Cunningham for his love, encouragement and assistance; 

David Bickar, a dear friend; William W. Kirby-Smith for use of 
equipment; Michael Brenowitz, Bruce Johnson and Jeanette Field, 
photographers; Donald Stearns, surface water sampler; Mamre Wilson, typist 
and angel; Alice Lindahl, Bruce Kenney, Andrew Sweatt, Patty Krikorian and 
Norris Hill at Duke University Marine Laboratory. 

Michael W. Street and Stephen W. Ross at North Carolina Division of 
Marine Fisheries; 

Peter Hansen, surface water sampler, at National Marine Fisheries 
Serivce; 

Albert Pittman, Ken Gray, "Pop" Harvey and George Crosby, Core Creek 
Bridge attendants; 

Paul Tyler, University College at Swansea, for assistance in the 
completion of the report; and 

Hans Paerl, University of North Carolina. 

Special thanks go to Virginia Bryan and John and Armina Kazarian for 
their encouragement. 



11 



ABSTRACT 

An investigation of the movement of dye in the Newport River estuary, 
Carteret County, North Carolina, was conducted in November and December, 
1980. Instantaneous introductions of a non-toxic, fluorescent dye, 
Rhodamine - WT, were made and wind and tidal conditions were recorded. At 
a number of locations the fluorescence, temperature and salinity of the 
water was measured at the surface and at a depth of 2 meters. Aerial 
photographs were taken of the dye plume during portions of this study. 

The Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway channel appears to greatly 
influence the movement of water in the lower part of the Newport River 
estuary. During the ebb tide, the dye travelled from a point north of the 
Newport Marshes, within the Intracoastal Waterway Channel, and towards the 
Beaufort Inlet where horizontal and vertical mixing rapidly reduced dye 
concentrations. During the flood tide, the dye was dispersed throughout 
the various channels branching off from the Intracoastal Waterway. 



Ill 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Acknowledgments ii 

Abstract iii 

List of Figures v 

List of Tables v 

List of Aerial Photographs v 

Summary and Conclusions vi 

Recommendations vi 

Introduction 1 

Newport River Estuary 1 

Materials and Methods 4 

Experiment 1 7 

Experiment 2 7 

Results 8 

Discussion 25 

References 27 

Appendices 28 

Appendix A. Fluorometric calibration curves for 28 

Experiments 1 and 2. 

Appendix B. U.S. Geological Survey tide table, 1980 32 

Appendix C. Description and results of current meter 33 

stations for Atlantic Intracoastal Water. 
U.S. Geological Survey, 1976. 



IV 



LIST OF FIGURES 
Number Page 

1 Main body of the Newport River estuary, N.C 2 

2 Shellfish and primary nursery areas in Newport River 3 

estuary. North Carolina. 

3 Fluorometric sampling stations 1-55 5 

4 Flow-through system for determination of in situ 6 

Phodamine - WT concentrations at surface and 2 m depths. 

5 Results of Experiment 1 (Ebb Tide) 12 

6 Results of Experiment 1 (Flood Tide) 13 

7 Results of Experiment 2 15 

8 Current meter data (U.S. Geological Survey 1976) 24 

LIST OF TABLES 

1 Results of Experiment 1 9 

2 Results of Experiment 2 16 

LIST OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS 

1 Aerial photograph of dye plume in the Atlantic Intra- 22 

coastal Waterway channel during Experiment 2. 

2 Aerial photograph of dye plume generally within the 22 

eastern border of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway 

channel near Phillips Island during Experiment 2. 

3 Aerial photograph of dye plume near the west bank of 22 

Phillips Island during Experiment 2. 

4 Aerial photograph of dye plume over shoals northeast 22 

of the Newport Marshes and southeast of Core Creek 
during Experiment 2. 



V 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

Investigation of the movement of dyed water in the Newport River 
estuary, Carteret County, N.C. indicated that the Atlantic Intracoastal 
Waterway channel greatly influences the dispersion of water in the estuary. 
Water traced with Rhodamine - WT, a non-toxic, biodegradable, fluorescent 
dye, travelled during the ebb tide from a point north of the Newport 
Marshes, within the Intracoastal Waterway channel, and towards the Beaufort 
Inlet. During the flood tide, the water was found throughout the various 
channels branching off from the Intracoastal Waterway and also was found in 
Bogue Sound, Taylors Creek and the upper estuary. We conclude that 
dissolved materials released from a point source generally remain in a 
distinct plume on the ebb tide but are mixed and carried throughout the 
lower estuary on the following flood tide. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

We recommend that, in managing coastal facilities along the Newport 
River estuary, the rapid and extensive distribution of water throughout the 
estuary be recognized. To reduce contaminant dispersion throughout the 
Newport River estuary and to increase the likelihood for dilution outside 
the estuary, effluent release should be restricted to periods during ebb 
tide and sites within the Intracoastal Waterway channel in close proximity 
to the Beaufort Inlet. 

Current meter monitoring stations and dye tracer studies (using the 
continuous method of dye release) would provide further and more extensive 
information about circulation patterns and optimum pollution control 
methods in the Newport River estuary. 



VI 



INTRODUCTION 

The Newport River Estuary, Carteret County, North Carolina is a highly 
productive body of water. Annually, it provides a livelihood for several 
hundred individuals engaged in shrimping, clamming, and oystering. 
Additional hundreds of individuals derive considerable relaxation and 
enjoyment from sports fishing during the year. Unpublished data from the 
North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries, Morehead City, North Carolina, 
indicates that in 1978 the wholesale value of the fisheries in the Newport 
River was $1.2 million. 

The Newport River is situated in the center of Carteret County. It is 
bounded on the north by forest, farmland and several small communities, on 
the east by the town of Beaufort, and on the southwest by the town of 
Morehead City and its deep-water port. The Newport River contributes to 
the economy of Carteret County not only through fisheries and its port but 
also through the tourism on which the county is dependent. The tourist 
income in Carteret County in 1979 was, according to the Carteret County 
Chamber of Commerce, approximately $64 million. 

The dye study reported here was designed to aid in the description of 
the short-term, tidally-driven, movement of water and dispersion of 
materials in the Newport River estuarine system. It is intended that the 
information presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the 
fate of contaminants which might enter this system. To gather information 
on the dispersion properties of waterborne materials in this tidal system, 
a dye tracer study was carried out on November 20-22, 1980 and again on 
December 12-14, 1980. The purpose of this report is to describe the 
procedure and findings of the study and to discuss the dispersion 
characteristics of the Newport River estuary. 



Newport River Estuary 

The Newport River estuary (34°45N, 76°40W) extends from "The Narrows" 
of the Newport River to the Beaufort Inlet (Figure 1) . The average depth 
at mean lew water is 1.0 m (Williams, 1966) and the estimated volume is 
3.079 X 10 m (Hyle, 1976). The primary freshwater source is the 
Newport River (located west of the "Narrows") which receives freshwater 
runoff from a watershed of about 310 km (Wolfe, 1975). Core Creek, 
located at the "L" bend, is maintained for navigation as part of the 
Intracoastal Waterway which passes through the Newport River estuary. No 
significant thermal or salinity stratification exists in the system (Wolfe 
et al^. , 1973). The upper part of the estuary measures approximately 1 . 7 km 
in width. This area generally consists of shoals, oyster and clam beds and 
is a primary nursery area (Figure 2) . The downstream end of the estuary is 
approximately 0.8 km in width, includes the Intracoastal Waterway channel 
and a deep-water access channel to the port of Morehead City. 

Hyle (1976) studied water movement in the Newport River estuary by 
analyzing the movements of sea bed drifters and determined flushing rates 
for six segments of the estuary using the tidal prism, method. The flushing 
time for each segment ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 tidal cycles. A total of 12.0 
tidal cycles (approximately 6 days) was estimated as the time for Newport 



-2- 




1 km 

t 1 






vp ShackJeford 
<;^ Banks 



Figure 1. Main body of the Newport River estuary, N.C. and the 
Intracoastal Waterway (IW) . BC = Beaufort Channel, 
BHC = Bulkhead Channel, CB = Causeway Bridge, CPT = Crab Point 
Thorouglifare, GC = Gallant Channel, MCP = Morehead City Port, 
NM = Newport Marshes, PI = Phillips Island, TC = Taylors Creek. 



-3- 



^;7.'.^sk-^:ifi§??^-- 




Active Oyster Leases 

Clam Beds 

Primary Nursery Area 






ShackJeford . 
Banks . = 



Figure 2. Shellfish and primary nursery areas in Newport River estuary, 
N.C. From Ducharme and Strickland, 1980, and the North Carolina 
Division of Marine Fisheries. (NM = Newport Marshes) 



-4- 



River water to move through the estuarine system. Flushing rates are 
affected by river input, tidal volume changes, evaporation, local 
topography and prevailing local wind patterns. Hyle (1976) provided 
information from which one can determine the possible fate of a 
hypothetical mass of water with respect to time and space. However, in 
order to determine the horizontal and vertical movements of selected water 
masses at various times in the tidal cycle, more information is needed than 
is available from his report. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Artificially introduced tracer materials are useful for the purpose of 
empirically evaluating the distribution of a potential contaminant in time 
and space resulting from the processes of advection and turbulent 
diffusion. Dye tracer studies usually involve the use of one of two 
possible methods of dye release. The continuous method of release 
generally involves a controlled injection of dye over an extended period of 
time from a source remote from the receiving area. The instantaneous slug 
release method involves a point injection of dye after which the movement 
of the peak dye concentration in the plume is followed in the estuary. Due 
to the unavailability of large volumes of dye necessary for a continuous 
method of dye release and a restricted number of persons working on the 
project, an instantaneous slug release method was used. 

A non-toxic, biodegradable fluorescent dye, 20% Rhodamine - WT 
solution (Crompton and Knowles, New Jersey), was used. Two experiments 
involving the introduction of a slug of Rhodamine - WT in the surface layer 
were conducted on November 20-22, 1980 (Experiment 1) and December 12-14, 
1980 (Experiment 2) . Dye slugs were released at slack high water and 
3 hours after low water in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, to determine 
the fate of a mass of water during a tidal cycle. 

In situ dye concentrations were determined from a small boat at two 
depths in the water column, surface and 2 m, at 56 station^ (Figure 3). 
Two Turner Model 110 fluorometers (G.K. Turner Associates, Palo Alto, 
California) with continuous flow cells were used. Water was pumped through 
hoses which were attached to a 2.03 m long PVC pipe (Figure 4). An 
alternator supplied power to run the fluorometers and pumps during in situ 
monitoring. Separate tubing systems transported water from each depth 
through a fluorometer flow cell. The lag time and capacity of the two 
separate pumping systems were determined. Each fluorometer was calibrated, 
with the flow cells and alternator, using standard concentrations of 
Rhodamine - WT (Appendices A.1-A.3). A fluorometer with a cuvette door was 
also calibrated to enable laboratory analysis of the surface water samples 
(Appendix A. 4). Variations in fluorescence with respect to changes in 
salinity and temperature were determined. Prior to the dye releases, 
background fluorescence in the estuary was determined. Identical sampling 



* 
Mention of a brand name does not constitute endorsement by Duke 

University Marine Laboratory or the North Carolina Department of Natural 

Resources and Community Development. 



-5- 




ViZ-yr-r '■'■-<^ 














vP" Sh, 



lackleford 
Banks 



Figure 3. Fluorometric sampling stations(*) 1-55 (Station 56, Core Creek 
Bridge, is not shown). 6 = dye release stations for 
Experiment 1 (35) and Experiment 2 (11). BC = Beaufort Channel, 
BHC = Bulkhead Channel, CB = Causeway Bridge, CPT = Crab Point 
Thoroughfare, GC = Gallant Channel, NM = Newport Marshes, PI = 
Phillips Island, TC = Taylor's Creek. 



-6- 



g GENERATOR 



RUBBER HOS 



WATER PUMP 

surface 

depth 



WATER PUMP 
2 meter 
depth 




FLOW -THROUGH 

FLUOROMETER 
surface 
depth 




outflov; 



FLOW-THROUGH 
FLUOROMETER 
2 meter 
depth 




Figure 4. Fluorometric flow-through system (with pumps and generator) for 
determination of in situ Rhodamine - WT concentrations at 
surface and 2 m depths. 



-7- 



methods were used in Experiments 1 and 2. In situ monitoring at the 
surface layer and at depths of 2 meters were carried out by one boat which 
followed the visible course of the dye plume through the estuary. Another 
boat travelled to various stations in the estuary at which surface v/ater 
samples were collected in 15 ml glass bottles for later analysis in the 
laboratory. A 1-2 day delay in determining the salinity and concentration 
of Rhodamine - WT in the water samples was observed not to affect 
concentration. As a precautionary measure against deterioration of the 
Rhodamine - WT from exposure to light, samples were analyzed as soon as 
possible after collection. If this was not possible they were stored in a 
dark room prior to flucrometer analysis. 

In many cases Intracoastal Water way channel markers served as 
monitoring stations during the sampling period. Stations without 
Intracoastal Waterway markers were marked by buoys set prior to the dye 
release. Appendix B gives the predicted tide times for the days of the 
experiments . 



Experiment 1 

An instantaneous point release of 5.7 liters of 20% Rhodamine - WT 
solution was carried out in Experiment 1 during slack high tide at 
Station 35 (Figure 3) . The dye release was made at the rear of the boat so 
that the boat's propeJlor would aid in the mixing of the dye. The course 
of the visible dye plume was followed and point concentrations were 
determined at preselected stations. A mechanical failure in one of the 
pumping systems prevented in situ sampling at a depth of 2 m but sampling 
at the surface layer was possible. Sampling was carried out from 
Station 35 downstream to Beaufort Inlet where dilution of the dye prevented 
further tracing. Surface water samples were collected during the flood 
tide at stations in the estuary and analyzed the following day. 



Experiment 2 

An instantaneous point release of 14.0 liters of 20% Rhodamine - WT 
solution was carried out in Experiment 2, at Station 11 (Figure 3) 3 hours 
after low water. The dye was introduced as a circular surface patch 
(diameter 0.02 km) around Station 11. Both pumping systems were in working 
order during Experiment 2, enabling analysis of water from the surface and 
a depth of 2 m. In sit u sampling was carried out from a boat which 
followed the visible route of the dye plume. Surface grab samples were 
collected from another boat as in Experiment 1 and were analyzed later in 
the laboratory. Surface water samples were also collected from off the 
boat docks at the North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries (Station 9), 
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) laboratory 
(Station 26) , Duke University Marine Laboratory (Station 27) and Core Creek 
Bridge (Station 56). 

Aerial photographs (Photographs 1-5) were taken during Experiment 2 at 
time intervals within the period of flood tide (LW + 4 h and slack HW) . 
They provided information on the position and distribution of the dye 



plume. The aerial photographs further documented the results obtained from 
the in situ sampling from the boat. 



RESULTS 

The objective of Experiments 1 and 2 was to determine the distribution 
of substances entering the Newport River estuary by following the movement 
of a mass of water which had been tagged with Rhodamine - WT dye. 

The prevailing wind in Experiment 1 was 10 knots from the NNE. The 
sampling method employed and a rapid rate of dispersion in the estuary 
restricted the analysis of the distribution of dye to point concentrations. 
The time and distance relative to the initiation time and location for each 
sampling station was recorded (Table 1) . 

The visible portion of the dye plume in Experiment 1 remained in the 
Intracoastal Waterway channel during the ebbing tide (Figure 5) . The dye 
plume travelled at an average rate of 1.27 kph. Instantaneous rates of 
movement varied according to the state of the tide. Initially the dye 
plume elongated and formed a narrow ribbon on an east-west axis north of 
the Newport Marshes (Figure 5) . When the eastern end of the ribbon reached 
the Intracoastal Waterway channel, the dye mass moved within the limits of 
the channel to south of Station 19 and remained within the Intracoastal 
Waterway channel enroute to the Beaufort Inlet. The elongation of the 
plume continued until it reached the Morehead City Causeway Bridge. The 
width of the plume increased as it passed round the bridge pilings where 
horizontal and vertical mixing appeared to increase the diffusion of the 
dye. The concentration in the surface water of the dye plume decreased 
from 6.5 to 4.1 parts per billion as it moved from north to south of the 
Morehead City Causeway Bridge. 

Fluorometer analysis of surface water samples from the Crab Point 
Thoroughfare (Stations 15, 32, 22, 26) revealed that, although there was no 
visible trace of dye in the area west of the Newport Marshes, a small 
portion of the plume has passed through that area. Thus, while the 
majority of the traced water followed the Intracoastal Waterway east of the 
Newport Marshes, a portion had travelled through the shallower Crab Point 
Thoroughfare west of the Newport Marshes during the ebbing tide (Figure 5) . 

Estimates of mean concentrations across the plume were not possible 
due to the extensive length and rapid movement of the dye plume. The edges 
of the plume were distinct and visible. 

A visible dye plume was not observed in the Newport River estuary 
during the flooding tide in Experiment 1. However, fluorometer delineation 
of surface water samples clearly revealed the presence of dye in the 
estuary, indicating that the traced water had remained in the estuary 
(Table 1) . The distribution of dyed water during the flood tide was 
different from that of the ebb tide (Figure 6). Dyed water appeared to 
branch off from the Intracoastal Waterway channel at three points. One 
branch followed a northeastern flow through the Bulkhead Channel, entering 
Taylors Creek. Traces of dye were found in the Beaufort and Gallant 
Channels indicating a flow of water into the Intracoastal Waterway at 



Table 1. Data collected during Experiment 1 following an instantan- 
eous slug injection of 5.7 liters of 20% Rhodamine - WT solution at 
Station 35 at high water (HW)+2 hrs 30 min. The concentration of 
Rhodamine - WT in seawater is presented with regard to tidal period, 
depth in the water column, location, and salinity. 



Time 
hr min 



Depth 
Surface 2 m 



Station 

No. 



Salinity 
° / 

/ o o 



Cone, 
ppb 



November 20, 1981 



HW+2 


11 


X 


HW+2 


23 


X 


HW+2 


29 


X 


HW+2 


31 


X 


HW+2 


36 


X 


HW+2 


41 


X 


HW+2 


43 


X 


HW+2 


44 


X 


HW+2 


45 


X 


HW+2 


46 


X 


HW+2 


50 


X 


HW+2 


51 


X 


HW+2 


52 


X 


HW+2 


53 


X 


HW+2 


53 


X 


HW+2 


56 


X 


HW+2 


56 


X 


HW+2 


59 


z 


HW+3 


3 


X 


HW+3 


6 


X 


HW+3 


6 


X 


HW+3 


13 


X 


HW+3 


14 


X 


HW+3 


15 


X 


HW+3 


15 


X 


HW+3 


16 


X 


HW+3 


20 


X 


HW+3 


25 


X 


HW+3 


29 


X 


HW+3 


36 


X 


HW+3 


41 


X 


HW+3 


46 


X 


HW+3 


51 


X 


HW+3 


52 


X 


HW+3 


53 


X 


HW+3 


59 


X 


Page 1 


of 3 





36 




0.0 


35 


33.0 


0.0 


34 




0.0 


19 




0.0 


33 


33.0 


0.0 


36 




0.0 


32 


34.0 


2.3 


17 




4.0 


17 




1.1 


17 




1.1 


17 




1.1 


19 




1.1 


19 




1.1 


18 




1.1 


15 


33.0 


0.0 


17 




1.0 


20 


33.0 


1.0 


12 




0.0 


27 


32.0 


0.0 


7 


34.0 


0.1 


20 




0.6 


18 




1.1 


25 


33.0 


0.0 


8 


34.0 


0.0 


22 


33.0 


0.0 


17 




1.1 


36 


34.0 


0.0 


43 


31.0 


0.0 


12 


33.0 


6.5 


12 


33.0 


4.1 


23 




0.0 


15 


33.0 


0.0 


11 




1.1 


11 




1.4 


11 




10.0 


33 


33.0 


0.0 



-10- 



Table 1. 


(cont 'd 


) 










Time 




De 


pth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 


2 m 


No, 


°/ 

/ o o 


ppb 


HW+4 





X 




35 


28.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


1 


X 




6 




6.3 


HW+4 


6 


X 




7 




6.1 


HW+4 


10 


X 




7 


34.0 


1.1 


HW+4 


11 


X 




33 


32.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


16 


X 




4-5 




1.1 


HW+4 


17 


X 




34 


31.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


20 


X 




35 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


21 


X 




4-5 




1.9 


HW+4 


23 


X 




5 




1.1 


HW+4 


23 


X 




35 


31.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


23 


X 




34 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


24 


X 




4-5 




0.7 


HW+4 


25 


X 




5 


34.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


29 


X 




33 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


30 


X 




3 




1.1 


HW+4 


33 


X 




2 




1.1 


HW+4 


35 


X 




2 




1.1 


HW+4 


36 


X 




2 


33.0 


3.6 


HW+4 


41 


X 




36 


32.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


43 


X 




32 


31.0 


0.0 


HW+4 


50 


X 




25 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


7 


X 




31 


33.0 


0.0 


W-I+S 


14 


X 




3 


34.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


21 


X 




7 


34.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


24 


X 




27 


31.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


27 


X 




12 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


43 


X 




1 


33.0 


0.0 


HW+5 


51 


X 




3 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


1 


X 




31 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


19 


X 




1 


34.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


38 


X 




1 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


40 


X 




2 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


42 


X 




3 


^ 33.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


45 




X 


5 


32.0 


0.0 


LW+ 


48 




X 


7 


33.0 


0.8 


LW+ 


51 




X 


8 


34.0 


3.0 


LW+ 


55 




X 


12 


32.0 


0.1 


LW+1 







X 


15 


32.0 


0.5 


LW+1 


5 




X 


18 


32.0 


0.4 


LW+1 


9 




X 


20 


31.0 


1.3 


LW+1 


12 


X 




21 


31.0 


0.7 


LW+1 


16 


X 




22 


33.0 


0.0 


Page 2 of 


3 













-11- 



Table 1. (cont'd) 



Time 




Depth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 2 m 


No. 


/ O o 


ppb 


LW+1 


19 


X 


23 


32.0 


0.0 


LW+] 


22 


X 


2A 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+1 


26 


X 


25 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+1 


30 


X 


27 


33.0 


0.7 


LW+1 


33 


X 


30 


34.0 


0.1 


LW+2 


18 


X 


26 


33.0 


0.6 


LW+2 


20 


X 


25 


33.0 


0.2 


LW+2 


25 


X 


22 


33.0 


9.8 


LW+2 


27 


X 


20 


34.0 


1.7 


LW+2 


29 


X 


36 


31.0 


0.2 


I,W+2 


31 


X 


36 


33.0 


0.8 


LW+2 


33 


X 


44 


33.0 


0.5 


LW+2 


37 


X 


35 


32.0 


0.3 


LW+2 


42 


X 


43 


32.0 


14.8 


LW+2 


53 


X 


51 


29.0 


0.2 


LW+3 


5 


X 


34 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+3 


/ 


X 


33 


34.0 


0.0 


LW+3 


11 


X 


32 


34.0 


0.4 


LW+3 


16 


X 


15 


33.0 


0.0 


LW+3 


19 


X 


12 


34.0 


0.0 


LW+3 


23 


X 


7 


34.0 


0.0 


LW+3 


25 


X 


5 


34.0 


0.3 


LW+3 


27 


X 


3 


34.0 


0.5 


LW+3 


32 


X 


31 


34.0 


0.1 


T.W+3 


34 


y 


27 


34.0 


0.0 



Page 3 of 3 



-12- 




















1 km 




/ 



i^- Shackiefprd 
Banks • 



Figure 5. Results of Experiment 1 (ebb tide). Injection of 5.7 liters of 
20% Rhodamine - WT solution at Station 35 at high water + 
2-1/2 hours. The visible route of the traced water mass during 
the falling tide is indicated by a solid line. The dashed line 
indicates the route of traced water through the Crab Point 
Thoroughfare. 6 = dye release (Station 35). CB = Causeway 
Bridge, CPT = Crab Point Thoroughfare, NM = Newport Marshes, 
PI = Phillips Island. 



-13- 




^ 5hsck[eford 
>? Banks '^il^.-. 



Figure 6. Results of Experiment 1 (flood tide). Instantaneous slug 
injection of 5.7 liters of 20% Rhodamine - WT solution at 
Station 35 at high water + 2-1/2 hours. Solid lines indicate 
the route of the traced water during the flood tide 5-9 hours 
after the dye was released. ® = dye release (Station 35). 
BC = Beaufort Channel, BHC = Bulkhead Channel, CB = Causeway 
Bridge, CPT = Crab Point Thoroughfare, GC = Gallant Channel, 
NM = Newport Marshes, PI = Phillips Island, TC = Taylor's Creek. 



-14- 



Station 20. A second branch separated from the ebb route and entered Bogue 
Sound. A relatively high concentration of dye (3.0 parts per billion) was 
found at Station 8 while the tide was still rising, which indicates a 
possible strong flow of water into Bogue Sound. A third route of dye was 
to the west of the Newport Marshes through the Crab Point Thoroughfare. 
The presence of dye was found at the release point. Station 35, and at a 
point near the nursery area, Station 51. Although it was not possible to 
sample water in Back Sound it is probable that a fourth branch of water 
entered this area during the flooding tide. 

In Experiment 2 the dye plume was released at Station 11, south of the 
Morehead City Causeway Bridge. The wind was 10-15 knots SW. The dye plume 
generally remained within the boundaries of the Intracoastal Waterway as it 
travelled upstream to Station 36 (Figure 7) . The plume moved outside and 
west of the channel at Station 36 and approached the shoal area northeast 
of the Newport Marshes. The plume's surface area increased at slack high 
water and remained in a shallow area outside and to the west of the 
Intracoastal Waterway, north of the Newport Marshes and south of Core 
Creek. The dye plume travelled from the releasing point (Station 11) to 
Station 35 at an average rate of 1.66 km/hr. Surface water samples 
collected every hour at Core Creek Bridge (6.25 km north of Station 43) 
during December 12-14, 1980 indicated that the dyed water did not travel to 
that point in the surface layer. Similarly, surface water samples 
collected from the boat docks at Stations 9, 26 and 27 showed no presence 
of dye during the sampling period. Data collected during Experiment 2 are 
given in Table 2. 

Salinity ranged from 29.0 to 34.0 ppt during Experiment 1 and from 
16.2 (at Core Creek Bridge) to 36.0 ppt during Experiment 2 (Tables 1 
and 2) . Laboratory experiments revealed that the temperature and salinity 
ranges in the Newport River estuary had little effect on the fluorescence 
of standard concentrations of Rhodamine - WT and thus no corrections were 
necessary. 

In situ point determination of fluorescence in the water at the 
surface layer and at a depth of 2 meters revealed that concentrations of 
dye were greater at 2 m depth in the water column. Although the various 
parameters involved in vertical distribution of the dye make it difficult 
to assess the reason for the difference in dye concentrations, these 
findings may be partly attributed to the greater density of Rhodamine - WT 
(1.2 gm/ml) with respect to water. 

Aerial photographs taken during Experiment 2 showed that the dye plume 
generally remained within the limits of the Intracoastal Waterway during 
the rising tide (Photographs 1-3) and spread out over an extensive area of 
shallow waters north of the Newport Marshes at slack high water 
(Photograph 4) . These results correspond to those found by in situ 
sampling from the boat. The photographs show the elongation of the plume 
in the direction of the current flow and revealed that the plume travelled 
along the eastern boundary of the channel as it passed Phillips Island. 
Current meter data for the lower Newport River estuary are available 
(U.S. Geological Survey 1976) and are presented in Figure 8 and 
Appendices C.1-C.3. The information for a station near Phillips 
Island (10) to the east of the Intracoastal Waterway show a reversing 



-15- 




.■..•7*.--:.V.:.-}s: 
;•.■■:■.:.•■.•.:;.: BogueBa 



■^&f:^flI^^2S?l}^^ 



Back 
Sound 



1 km 

■ 




^ ShackJeford 
^ Banks '^v.-. 



Figure 7. Results of Experiment 2 (flood tide). Instantaneous slug 
injection of 14.0 liters of 20% Rhodamine - WT solution at 
Station 11 3 hrs after low water. Prevailing wind was 
10-15 knots SW. The period and rate of travel from Station 11 
to Station 35 was 3 hrs and 1.72 km/hr, respectively. The dye 
plume covered a large area over shoals north and east of the 
Newport Marshes. 6 = dye release (Station 11). CB = Causeway 
Bridge, CPT = Crab Point Thoroughfare, NM = Newport Marshes, 
PI = Phillips Island. 



-16- 



Table 2. Results of Experiment 2. Instantaneous slug injection of 
14.0 liters of Rhodamine - WT solution at Station 11 at low water 
(LW)+3 hr. The concentration of Rhodamine - WT in seawater is 
presented with respect to tidal period, depth in the water column, 
location and salinity. * = Core Creek Bridge. 



Time Depth Station Salinity Cone, 

hr min Surface 2m No. °/oo ppb 



December 12, 1980 



X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 



LW+2 


54 


LW+2 


54 


LW+3 


1 


LW+3 


4 


LW+3 


4 


LW+3 


8 


LW+3 


24 


LW+3 


29 


LW+3 


29 


LW+3 


29 


LW+3 


35 


LW+3 


35 


LW+3 


39 


LW+3 


43 


LW+3 


52 


LW+3 


53 


LW+3 


53 


LW+3 


58 


LW+3 


58 


LW+3 


59 


LW+4 


6 


LW+4 


6 


LW+4 


8 


LW+4 


11 


LW+4 


15 


LW+4 


15 


LW+4 


17 


LW+4 


18 


LW+4 


20 


LW+4 


24 


LW+4 


24 


LW+4 


29 


LW+4 


29 


LW+4 


29 


LW+4 


31 


LW+4 


31 


LW+4 


39 


LW+4 


39 


Page 1 


of 6 



X 



X 
X 



11 




0.0 


11 




0.0 


12 


34.02 


0.0 


11 




1.50 


11 




7.0 


12 


33.45 


1.05 


* 


17.88 


0.0 


15 


34.56 


0.0 


14 


34.56 


0.0 


14 


34.02 


0.0 


14 




130.0 


14 




0.0 


9 


33.00 


0.0 


32 


34.02 


0.0 


33 


33.45 


0.0 


18 


33.45 


00.0 


17 


32.94 


10.0 


16 


34.02 


5.0 


32 


34.56 


0.0 


26 


34.56 


0.0 


20 


34.56 


0.0 


15 


33.45 


0.0 


14 


33.45 


0.0 


12 


34.02 


0.0 


20 




0.6 


19-20 


32.94 


0.0 


32 


34.02 


0.0 


19-20 




7.0 


33 


33.45 


0.0 


34 


34.02 


0.0 


* 


16.74 


0.0 


20 




10.0 


20 




17.0 


27 


34.56 


0.0 


19-20 


34.56 


7.2 


19-20 


34.02 


9.6 


21 


34.56 


7.5 


21 


34.02 


0.0 



•17- 



Table 2. (cont'd) 



Time 






Depth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surf 


ace 2 m 


No. 


/ O 


ppb 


LW+4 


39 


X 




35 


32.94 


0.0 


LW+4 


46 


X 




32 


33.45 


0.0 


LW+4 


50 


X 




36 




2.7 


LW+4 


50 




X 


36 




4.9 


LW+4 


53 


X 




36 


33.45 


2.7 


LW+4 


53 




X 


36 


31.32 


3.4 


LW+4 


54 


X 




51 


29.16 


0.0 


LW+4 


55 


X 




26 


32.94 


0.0 


LW+4 


58 


X 




38 




0.0 


LW+4 


58 




X 


38 




0.0 


LW+4 


58 


X 




38 


34.56 


0.0 


LW+4 


58 




X 


38 


34.02 


0.0 


LW+4 


59 


X 




9 


34.00 


0.0 


LW+5 


1 


X 




53 


29.16 


0.0 


LW+5 


7 


X 




54 


27.00 


0.0 


LW+5 


12 


X 




55 


27.54 


0.0 


LW+5 


23 


X 




53 


28.08 


0.0 


LW+5 


24 


X 




27 


34.56 


0.0 


LW+5 


30 


X 




51 


29.19 


0.0 


LW+5 


34 


X 




* 


16.20 


0.0 


LW+5 


36 


X 




35 


33.45 


0.0 


LW+5 


41 


X 




43 


31.80 


0.0 


LW+5 


54 


X 




9 


34.00 


0.0 


LW+5 


54 


X 




26 


34.56 


0.0 


LW+5 


56 


X 




35 


34.02 


2.2 


LW+6 


3 


X 




34 


34.02 


0.0 


LW+6 


8 


X 




33 


34.56 


0.0 


LW+6 


12 


X 




32 


34.56 


0.0 


LW+6 


17 


X 




15 


35.10 


0.0 


LW+6 


19 


X 




35 


33.45 


1.1 


LW+6 


21 


X 




12 


35.64 


0.0 


LW+6 


24 


X 




7 


35.64 


0.0 


LW+6 


24 


X 




27 


35.10 


0.0 


LW+6 


27 


X 




4-5 


33.45 


0.0 


LW+6 


29 


X 




A 


19.44 


0.0 


HW+0 


1 


X 




48 


34.02 


1.0 


HW+0 


1 




X 


48 


34.02 


2.4 


HW+0 


1 


X 




48 




0.7 


HW+0 


1 




X 


48 




3.2 


HW+0 


1 


X 




31 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+0 


3 


X 




28 


33.45 


0.0 


HW+0 


7 


X 




44 




1.7 


HW+0 


7 




X 


44 




4.4 


HW+0 


7 


X 




44 


33.45 


2.3 


Page 2 of 


6 













-18- 



Table 2. 


(cont'd 


) 










Time 




Depth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 2 m 


No. 


° / 

/ o o 


ppb 


HW+0 


7 




X 


44 


33.45 


2.2 


HW+0 


12 


X 




44 




3.7 


HW+0 


12 




X 


44 




6.2 


HW+0 


12 


X 




44 


33.45 


2.1 


HW+0 


12 




X 


44 


34.56 


4.5 


HW+0 


17 


X 




9 


34.50 


0.0 


HW+0 


20 


X 




48 




0.0 


HW+0 


20 




X 


48 




0.0 


HW+0 


20 


X 




48 


32.94 


0.0 


HW+0 


20 




X 


48 


34.02 


0.0 


HW+0 


22 


X 




26 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+0 


30 


X 




45 




3.3 


HW+0 


30 




X 


45 




6.2 


HW+0 


30 


X 




45 


34.56 


3.1 


HW+0 


30 


X 




45 


33.45 


3.5 


HW+0 


37 


X 




47 




1.7 


HW+0 


37 




X 


47 




2.4 


HW+0 


37 


X 




47 


34.56 


0.9 


HW+0 


37 




X 


47 


34.56 


0.8 


HW+0 


50 


X 




51 




0.0 


HW+0 


50 




X 


51 




0.0 


HW+0 


50 


X 




51 


31.80 


0.0 


HW+0 


50 




X 


51 


32.40 


0.0 


HW+0 


52 






9 


34.00 


0.0 


HW+0 


52 


X 




* 


23.22 


0.0 


HW+0 


57 


X 




27 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+0 


59 


X 




35 




0.0 


HW+0 


59 


X 




35 




0.0 


HW+0 


59 


X 




35 


31.32 


0.0 


HW+0 


59 




X 


35 


32.40 


0.0 


HW+1 


4 


X 




46 




0.0 


HW+1 


4 




X 


46 




0.0 


HW+1 


4 


X 




46 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+1 


4 




X 


46 


33.45 


0.0 


HW+1 


9 


X 




49 




3.2 


HW+1 


9 




X 


49 




7.0 


HW+1 


9 


X 




49 


31.80 


6.7 


HW+1 


9 




X 


49 


32.94 


7.3 


HW+1 


10 


X 




35 


34.02 


0.0 


HW+1 


22 


X 




26 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+1 


45 


X 




50 




2.7 


HW+1 


45 




X 


50 




7.0 


HW+1 


45 


X 




50 


32.40 


2.1 


HW+1 


45 




X 


50 


33.45 


6.5 



Page 3 of 6 



■19- 



Table 2. 


(cont'd) 












Time 




Dep 


th 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 


2 m 


No. 


/ o o 


ppb 


HW+1 


50 


X 




48 




0.0 


mhr 1 


50 




X 


48 




0.0 


HW+1 


50 


X 




48 


35.12 


0.0 


HW+1 


50 




X 


48 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+1 


57 


X 




27 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+1 


57 


X 




* 


26.46 


0.0 


HW+2 


2 


X 




9 


34.00 


0.0 


HW+2 


15 


X 




46 




0.2 


HW+2 


15 




X 


46 




0.1 


HW+2 


15 


X 




46 


33.45 


2.1 


HW+2 


15 




X 


46 


33.45 


3.9 


HW+2 


20 


_x 




46 




5.2 


HW+2 


20 




X 


46 




5.4 


HW+2 


20 


X 




46 


34.02 


3.2 


HW+2 


20 




X 


46 


33.45 


3.8 


HW+2 


22 


X 




26 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+2 


31 


X 




39 




0.6 


HW+2 


31 




X 


39 




1.1 


HW+2 


31 


X 




39 


35.12 


0.8 


HW+2 


31 




X 


39 


34.02 


0.8 


HW+2 


37 


X 




41 


34.02 


0.0 


HW+2 


37 




X 


41 


33.45 


0.0 


HW+2 


52 


X 




27 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+2 


52 


X 




* 


31.32 


0.0 


HW+2 


56 


X 




35 


32.94 


0.0 


HW+2 


56 




X 


35 


29.70 


0.0 


HW+3 


7 


X 




9 


34.50 


0.0 


HW+3 


15 


X 




34 


34.02 


0.0 


HW+3 


22 


X 




27 


34.02 


0.0 


HW+3 


29 


X 




43 


31.32 


0.0 


HW+3 


35 


X 




39 


34.02 


0.2 


HW + 3 


46 


X 




12 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+3 


52 


X 




27 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+3 


55 


X 




14 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+3 


55 


X 




14 




0.0 


HW+3 


55 




X 


14 




0.0 


HW+4 


4 


X 




25 


33.45 


0.0 


HW+4 


7 


X 




A 


29.16 


0.0 


HW+4 


12 


X 




9 


34.00 


0.0 


HW+4 


13 


X 




29 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+4 


49 


X 




29 


35.10 


0.0 


HW+4 


49 




X 


29 




0.0 


HW+4 


49 


X 




29 




0.0 


HW+4 


52 


X 




27 


33.45 


0.0 


Page 4 of 


6 













-20- 



Table 2. (cont'd) 



Time 




Depth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 2 m 


No. 


/ O 


ppb 


HW+4 


58 


X 


31 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+5 




X 


* 


28.08 


0.0 


HW+5 


17 


X 


9 


34.00 


0.0 


HW+5 


52 


X 


27 


34.56 


0.0 


HW+6 


7 


X 


9 


34.00 


0.0 


HW+6 


7 


X 


* 


29.16 


0.0 


LW+0 


39 


X 


27 


33.45 


0.0 


LW+0 


44 


X 


* 


30.24 


0.0 


LW+1 


42 


X 


* 


29.70 


0.0 


LW+2 


41 


X 


* 


26.46 


0.0 


LW+3 


13 


X 


27 


34.02 


0.0 


LW+3 


44 


X 


A 


22.68 


0.0 


LW+4 


39 


X 


27 


35.10 


0.0 


LW+4 


41 


X 


* 


22.68 


0.0 


LW+5 


20 


X 


27 


34.02 


0.0 


LW+5 


40 


X 


A 


25.38 


0.0 



December 13, 1980 



HW+ 


24 


HW+1 


28 


HW+2 


33 


HW+3 


23 


HW+4 


33 


HW+5 


29 


LW+ 


36 


LW+1 


29 


LW+2 


29 


LW+3 


29 


LW+4 


29 


LW+5 


29 


HW+0 


2 


HW+1 


2 


HW+2 


1 


HW+2 


1 


HW+2 


2 


HW+2 


17 


HW+2 


29 


HW+2 


45 


HW+2 


32 


HW+3 


2 


HW+3 


7 


HW+4 


12 


HW+5 


12 


Page 5 


of 6 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



* 


25.92 


0.0 


* 


30.78 


0.0 


* 


30.24 


0.0 


* 


30.24 


0.0 


* 


31.80 


0.0 


A 


29.70 


0.0 


A 


31.32 


0.0 


A 


30.78 


0.0 


A 


28.08 


0.0 


A 


29.70 


0.0 


A 


25.92 


0.0 


A 


29.70 


0.0 


A 


29.16 


0.0 


A 


28.08 


0.0 


25 


32.40 


0.0 


25 


33.45 


0.0 


* 


28.62 


0.0 


14 


33.45 


0.0 


41 


32,94 


0.0 


27 


34.56 


0.0 


30 


35.10 


0.0 


A 


30.24 


0.0 


A 


30.24 


0.0 


A 


31.32 


0.0 


A 


31.24 


0.0 



-21- 



Table 2 (cont'd) 



Time 




Depth 


Station 


Salinity 


Cone. 


hr 


min 


Surface 2 m 


No. 


° / 

/ o 


ppb 


LW+0 


51 


X 


■k 


30.24 


0.0 


LW+1 


46 


X 


* 


31.32 


0.0 


LW+2 


51 


X 


;fc 


31.32 


0.0 


LW+3 


51 


X 


* 


31.32 


0.0 


LW+4 


51 


X 


* 


31.32 


0.0 


LW+5 


52 


X 


* 


30.78 


0.0 



December 14, 1980 
HW+0 26 



HW+1 


27 


X 


HW+2 


4] 


X 


HW+3 


52 


X 


HW+4 


56 


X 


HW+5 


41 


X 


LW+0 


49 


X 


LW+2 


29 


X 


LW+3 


29 


X 


LW+4 


29 


X 


HW+0 


2 


X 



A 


30.78 


0.0 


* 


30.78 


0.0 


* 


29.70 


0.0 


* 


30.78 


0.0 


* 


30.78 


0.0 


* 


31.32 


0.0 


* 


30.24 


0.0 


A 


27.00 


0.0 


* 


23.76 


0.0 


* 


22.68 


0.0 


A 


25.38 


0.0 



Page 6 of 6 



22 





Photograph 1. 



Photograph 2. 





Photograph 3. 



Photograph 4. 



23 





Photograph 1. Aerial photograph of dye plume in the Atlantic 
Intracoastal Waterway channel during Experiment 2, December 
12, 1980, LW + 4 hrs. Taken from approximately 350 m. 



Photograph 2. Aerial photograph of dye plume generally within 
the eastern border of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway channel 
near Phillips Island during Experiment 2, December 12, 1980, 
LW + 4 hrs. Taken from approximately 350 m. 





■■■■-■■ "^y . 



i^ 




Photograph 3. Aerial photograph of dye plume near the west bank 
of Phillips Island during Experiment 2, December 12, 1980, LW + 4 
hrs. Taken from approximately 150 m. 



Photograph 4. Aerial photograph of dye plume over shoals 
northeast of the Newport Marshes and southeast of Core Creek 
during Experiment 2, December 12, 1980, slack high water. Taken 
from approximately 350 m. 



-24- 



' » • * • 1^ . 






<i^-'^\ 



c^- 



NEWPORT RIVER 



j to the 
I Narrows 

j (2 Km);/^ 






.■^•:-Hti 



.^;' 







1 km 






-I 



>^ 



, AS-- 0.41-0.80") 

II„_NNs = 0.81-1.20 \^^^^l^% 
3I..:^^^^. 1.21 -1.60 j "^^'XT 
^ xvx^ . 1 fil-2.00 1 'knots! 




M' 



AS:0.41-U.OU 

I_„-N\s = 0.81-1.20 \\ 
3I..:^^^^« 1.21-1.60 
^.:x\N^.. 1.61 -2.00 1 



vp Shackleford 



Banks '"^"^s^-; 



mean mean 
flood ebb 



Figure 8. Current meter data (U.S. Geological Survey 1976). Data in 
Appendices C.1-C.3. 



-25- 



current flowing 44° (true) on the flood and 215° (true) on the ebb with a 
mean velocity of 1.39 knots on the flood and 1.15 knots on the ebb. Data 
from two stations in the Intracoastal Water (Stations 9 and 11) show a 
reversing current flowing NE-SW with mean velocities of approximately 
1 knot on both flood and ebb. These data correspond closely with the 
information derived from the dye survey. 



DISCUSSION 

Experiments 1 and 2 reveal that the Intracoastal Waterway and the 
deep-water access channel to the port greatly influences tidal water 
movement in the Newport River estuary. In the process of defining this 
estuarine complex as "well-mixed" much consideration should be given to the 
effect of the Intracoastal Waterway channel on horizontal advection in the 
estuary. In Experiment 1, during the ebb tide, the dye plume released to 
the north of Newport Marshes, outside the boundaries of the Intracoastal 
Waterway, moved eastwards into the main channel of the Intracoastal 
Waterway. It then moved seaward as a relatively discrete body of water to 
the east of Newport Marshes, west of Phillips Island, and under the 
Morehead City Causeway Bridge. At this last point, horizontal dispersion 
occurred due to the eddy effects of the bridge supports before the tracer 
water moved out towards the Beaufort Inlet. A small fraction of the 
initial dye release passed down the Crab Point Thoroughfare to the west of 
Newport Marshes. Thus, on an ebbing tide, water moves seawards in the 
channels as a discrete mass but it becomes mixed into other water masses 
and diluted before reaching the Beaufort Inlet. If the release point had 
been further west more dye may have passed through the Crab Point 
Thoroughfare. 

On the flood tide during Experiment 1 there was a horizontal movement 
of water through all the major channels near the Beaufort Inlet. The dye 
release was rapidly diluted and the water penetrated Bogue Sound, Bulkhead 
Channel, Taylor's Creek, Gallants Channel, and Crab Point Thoroughfare as 
well as following the Intracoastal Waterway. Once in these channels, the 
water moved as a discrete body as evidenced by the passage of dye released 
just south of Causeway Bridge during a flood tide (Experiment 2) . These 
data suggest that any material suspended or dissolved in the water near 
Beaufort Inlet may be carried up any or all of the channels that branch off 
from this body of water and possibly will enter the water of Bogue and Back 
Sounds and Taylors Creeks as well as the main body of the Newport River 
estuary. 

The data presented here suggest that even if a discrete body of water 
passes down the Intracoastal Waterway on the ebb and is retained in 
Beaufort Inlet, rather than being released to the open sea, the water will 
be dispersed throughout all the channels inland of Beaufort Inlet on the 
next flood tide. 

The presence of dye near the nursery area (Station 51) is of 
significance. If the traced water detected in this area in Experiment 1 is 
of the same plume which left the Newport River estuary during the ebbing 
tide, a distance of 14 miles was traversed in one tidal cycle. The Newport 



-26- 



Marshes were inaccessible to our boats, and it is unknown whether or not 
the traced water entered the marsh area. It is possible that traces of dye 
which may have entered the Newport Marshes could account for the 
concentration of dye found near the nursery area (Table 1). The high 
flushing rate up to Station 51 corresponds to findings made by Hyle (1976) 
in which the relative changes in volume between high and low water in 
segments from Crab Point to the Morehead City Causeway Bridge are the same. 
The volume changes west of Crab Point sharply decrease and may explain 
Hyle ' s low average flushing rate of 12.0 tidal cycles. For the whole 
estuary the similarity between dye plume movement during the ebbing tide in 
Experiment 1 and flooding tide in Experiment 2 north of the Newport Marshes 
is evidence that a northwest/southeast flow exchanges water in the nursery 
area in the upper end of the estuary with that of the Intracoastal 
Waterway. 



-27- 



REFERENCES 

Ducharme, A. and J. Strickland. 1980. The Living Resources of the Newport 
River. Unpublished manuscript, Duke University Marine Laboratory. 

Hyle, R.A., II. 1976. Fishes of the Newport River estuary. North 

Carolina, their composition, seasonality and community structure, 
1970-72. Ph.D. thesis. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
102 pp. 

U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric 

Administration, National Ocean Survey. March, 1981. Nautical 
Chart i/11541. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 1971. 7.5 minute series (topographic) of Beaufort 
Quadrangle. Map #N3437 . 5-W7637 . 5/7 . 5 . 

U.S. Geological Survey. 1976. 

Wolfe, D.A, 1975. Modeling the distribution and cycling of metallic 

elements in estuarine ecosystems. In Estuarine Research , ed. 
L.E. Cronin, Vol. 1, pp. 645-671. 

Wolfe, D.A., F.A. Cross, and CD. Jennings. 1973. The flux of Mn, Fe , and 
Zn in an estuarine ecosystem. In Radioactive Contaminants of the 
Marine Environment , pp. 159-175. Vienna: International Atomic Energy 
Agency. 

Williams, A.B. 1966, Annual phytoplankton production in a system of 

shallow temperate estuaries. In Some Contemporary Studies in Marine 
Science , ed . H. Barnes, pp. 669-716. London: George Allen and Unwin 
Ltd. 



-28- 



72" 




Rhodamine WT Concentration 
parts per trillion 



Appendix A.l. Fluorometric calibration curves. 

Experiment 1. Surface flow-through water sampling calibration curve, 



-29- 




Rhodam'.-ie WT Concentration 
par:s per trillion 



Appendix A. 2. Fluorometric calibration curves. 

Experiment 2. Surface flow-through water sampling calibration curve, 



-so- 




lo" 



Rhodamine WT Concentration 
parts per trillion 



10~ 



Appendix A. 3. Fluorometric calibration curves. 

Experiment 2. 2 m flow-through water sampling calibration curve, 



-31- 




10' 10' 

Rhodamine V/T Concentration 
parts per trillion 



Appendix A. 4. Fluorometric calibration curves. 

Experiments 1 and 2. Surface cuvette water sampling calibration curve. 



-32- 



Appendix B. USGS Tide Table. 

Adjusted for Morehead City-Beaufort 

Causeway Bridge from Hampton Roads, 
VA data. 



1980 






Time 
(h.m.) 


November 


20 


high 


0559 






low 


1211 






high 


1825 


November 


21 


low 


0020 






high 


0654 






low 


1306 






high 


1918 


December 


12 


low 


0436 






high 


1108 






low 


1721 






high 


2337 


December 


13 


low 


0531 






high 


1158 






low 


1809 


December 


14 


high 


0036 






low 


0631 






high 


1256 






low 


1905 


December 


15 


high 


0136 






low 


0740 






high 


... 1359 






low 


2005 



-33- 



Appendix 


C.l. Description of 


current meter stations for 


Atlantic 


Intracoastal Waterway. 


U.S. Ceolc 


gical Survey- 


, 1976. 












Depth 


Depth 








Location 


of 
water 


of 
meter 


Beginning 
of data 


Duration 


Station 


Latitude 


Longitude 


of data 


No. 


(N) 


(W) 


(ft)(MLW) 


(ft) 




(days) 


6 


34=41.98' 


76°40.52' 


25 


10 


3/30/76 


16 


6 


34°41.98' 


76°40.52' 


25 


20 


3/30/76 


16 


7 


34^42.23' 


76°41.17' 


27 


6 


2/25/76 


70 


7 


34°42.23' 


76°41.17' 


27 


15 


2/25/76 


70 


8 


34°42.78' 


76°41.65' 


34 


6 


3/11/76 


16 


8 


34°42.78' 


76°41.65' 


34 


15 


3/11/76 


16 


9 


34°43.37' 


76°41.63' 


22 


6 


4/13/76 


17 


10 


34°43.88' 


76°41.00' 


24 


6 


2/23/76 


33 


10 


34°43.88' 


76°41.00' 


24 


15 


2/23/76 


33 


11 


34°44.17' 


76°40.83' 


20 


6 


4/14/76 


17 


12 


34°45.45' 


76°40.42' 


20 


6 


4/17/76 


17 


13 


34°43.00' 


76=43.97' 


19 


6 


2/24/76 


32 


14 


34°42.70' 


76°42.83' 


15 


6 


2/23/76 


33 


17 


34=42.70' 


76=40.78' 


15 


6 


2/24/76 


32 


18 


34°42.03' 


76=39.23' 


19 


6 


3/17/76 


13 


19 


34°41.53' 


76=39.13' 


22 


6 


2/25/76 


34 


20 


34°42.13' 


76=37.05' 


13 


6 


4/24/76 


9 



-34- 



Appendix C.2. Results of current meter experiments for 
Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, 
1976. 



Station Mean 


flood 


No. 


Velocity 


Direction 




(knots) 


(°) 


6(10'^ 


) 1.96 


307 


6(20'^ 


) 1.99 


320 


7( 6': 


) 1.35 


314 


7(15" 


) 1.64 


305 


8( 6'- 


) 1.30 


327 


8(15' 


) 1.20 


334 


9( 6'; 


) 1.01 


054 


10( 6" 


) 1.39 


044 


10(15'; 


) 1.31 


044 


11( 6" 


) 0.95 


040 


12( 6'^ 


) 1.50 


075 


13( 6' 


) 1.43 


293 


14( 6" 


) 1.14 


266 


17( 6' 


) 1.19 


022 


18( 6' 


) 0.83 


126 


19( 6' 


) 1.34 


135 


20 ( 6' 


) 0.87 


080 



Mean ebb 



Velocity Direction 
(knots) (°) 



2.77 


151 


1.71 


153 


1.52 


145 


1.71 


128 


1.00 


144 


1.00 


138 


1.02 


185 


1.15 


215 


1.16 


226 


0.97 


224 


1.20 


350 


1.45 


110 


1.63 


094 


1.17 


202 


0.82 


304 


1.11 


305 


1.29 


262 



-35- 



Appendix C.3. Results of current meter experiments 
Intracoastal Waterway. U.S. Geological Survey, 1976. 



for Atlantic 







Min 


Lmums 




Nont 






Before 


flood 


After 


flood 


idal 


Station Velocity Direction 


Velocity 


Direction 


Velocity 


Direction 


No. 


(knots) 


(°) 


( kno t s ) 


(°) 


(knots) 


(°) 


6(10': 


) 0.09 


232 


0.04 


225 


0.23 


228 


6(20" 


) 0.20 


242 


0.09 


232 


0.15 


237 


7( 6': 


) 0.03 


054 


0.03 


227 


0.16 


172 


7(15" 


) 0.05 


222 


0.09 


220 


0.10 


154 


8( 6'; 


) 0.01 


218 


0.10 


237 


0.07 


334 


8(15" 


) 0.06 


048 


0.05 


237 


0.13 


018 


9( 6" 


) 0.20 


127 


0.14 


122 


0.33 


128 


10( 6" 


) 0.05 


130 


0.04 


126 


0.09 


114 


10(15': 


) 0.03 


317 


0.01 


313 


0.03 


321 


11( 6" 


) 0.02 


309 


0.01 


130 


0.09 


236 


i2( 6': 


) 0.48 


031 


0.50 


341 


- 


- 


13( 6" 


) 0.00 


027 


0.03 


028 


0.08 


090 


14( 6" 


) 0.01 


179 


0.02 


175 


0.19 


HI 


17( 6" 


) 0.03 


113 


0.02 


116 


0.05 


168 


18( 6" 


) 0.03 


033 


0.06 


217 


0.02 


278 


19( 6" 


) 0.06 


218 


0.02 


219 


0.10 


182 


20 ( 6" 


) 0.06 


359 


0.03 


163 


0.18 


268 



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